A team of researchers from around the world have sequenced the DNA of the Robusta coffee bean in an important step that could lead to future developments to improve the bean’s yield, quality and resistance to disease and drought, and to increase farmer incomes.
The coffee genome work is part of Nestlé’s broader research programme in plant science that will help the company ensure a sustainable supply of high quality raw materials, including cocoa and coffee.
In their work, the researchers found that the sequences and positions of the genes in Coffea canephora, the coffee plant commonly referred to as Robusta, evolved independently from genes with similar functions in tea and cocoa, which also make caffeine.
By looking at the relationship between the genome structure of Robusta and other species like tea and cocoa, researchers were able to learn about coffee’s independent pathway in evolution.
Robusta has a stronger and harsher flavour profile compared with the smoother and richer one of the other major coffee bean, Arabica.